the war of the century 4
This divisiveness gave Spain the opportunity to send Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma with 20,000 well-trained troops into the Netherlands. Austria-Hungary, which declared war on 28 July 1914, merely wanted to dismember Serbia, where irredentists were stirring up ethnic Serbs in Austrian … Realising that his predecessor had been right and that there was no prospect of a Protestant king succeeding in Catholic Paris, Henry reputedly uttered the famous phrase Paris vaut bien une messe (Paris is well worth a Mass). This war caused the death of an estimated 13.5 million people, almost 10% of the population—12 million civilians and 1.5 million soldiers. While Philip wasted Farnese with ridiculous and useless battles against England and France, Spain had become spread too thin. However, the massacre has significance mainly as a symbol of the Irish perception of Cromwellian cruelty, as far more people died in the subsequent guerrilla warfare and scorched-earth fighting in the country than at infamous massacres such as Drogheda and Wexford. The Mexican-American War was a conflict between the United States and Mexico, fought from April 1846 to February 1848.Won by the Americans and damned by its contemporary critics as expansionist, it resulted in the U.S. gaining more than 500,000 square miles (1,300,000 square km) of Mexican territory extending westward from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean. After seven months, when the city's inhabitants had been reduced to eating weeds and heather, the city surrendered (July 11, 1573). This provoked the First War. The defenders dug tunnels to meet them. The Duke of Guise had been highly popular in France, and the league declared open war against King Henry. War Documentary hosted by Samuel West and published by BBC in 2005 - English narration  Cover InformationIt was the bloodiest war in history, yet Hitler's brutal invasion of the Soviet Union and Stalin's subsequent fight back is surprisingly little known in the West. A garrison of 4,000 troops defended the city with such intensity that Don Fadrique contemplated withdrawing. While War of the Century ("WOTC") is limited in scope to "just" the German v. Russian fronts, it one of the best documentaries ever produced in regards to the mentality of World War II. Even the Catholics now joined with Protestants as Philip stated that he would rather sacrifice a hundred thousand lives than change his policy. On his deathbed, Henry III called for Henry of Navarre and begged him, in the name of Statecraft, to become a Catholic, citing the brutal warfare that would ensue if he refused. The preaching of Martin Luther and his many followers raised tensions across Europe. The Battle of Towton during the Wars of the Roses was one of the deadliest battles ever fought in England. What about the First World War, not to mention the other theatres of the 1939-45 conflict? The Thirty Years' War was fought between 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of today's Germany, and involved most of the major European powers. This played a major part in the rejection of his teachings by many German peasants, particularly in the south. After the Convention of Estates deposed the Catholic king James VII on 11 April 1689, they offered the royal title to William and his wife Mary (the Protestant daughter of James), which they accepted on 11 May 1689. Meanwhile, York’s eldest son and heir, Edward, had defeated a Lancastrian force at Mortimer’s Cross (February 2) and marched to relieve London, arriving before Margaret on February 26. In the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas an estimated two thirds of the population died. After numerous minor incidents and provocations from both sides, a Catholic priest was executed in the Thurgau in May 1528, and the Protestant pastor J. Keyser was burned at the stake in Schwyz in 1529.  and it would be a puppet state until 1814, when Frederick VI renounced his claims to the Crown of Norway in favor of the King of Sweden as part of the Treaty of Kiel.  It took more than four months but the besiegers finally breached the wall and entered the city at night. The Bourbons, with English support and led by Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, and Admiral Coligny, began to seize and garrison strategic towns along the Loire. However various Protestant elements rejected the Interim, and the Second Schmalkaldic War broke out in 1552, which would last until 1555.. The King knew that he had to take Paris if he stood any chance of ruling all of France. It was well known that most Protestant leaders condemned the violence perpetrated by the angry mobs, but the pillage and destruction of property was considered far less criminal than burning heretics at the stake. Henry of Navarre again sought foreign aid from the German princes and Elizabeth I of England. Lawlessness was rife and taxation burdensome. Open war was avoided by means of a peace agreement (Erster Landfriede) that was not exactly favourable to the Catholic side, which had to dissolve its alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs. The citizens of each state were forced to adopt the religion of their rulers (the principle of, Lutherans could keep the territory that they had captured from the Catholic Church since the, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 00:51. Ellis, S. "The Tudors and the origins of the modern Irish states: A standing army". After the death of Henry V in 1422 the country was subject to the long and factious minority of Henry VI (August 1422–November 1437), during which the English kingdom was managed by the king’s council, a predominantly aristocratic body. S1, Ep1. After the Peasants' War, a second and more determined attempt to establish a theocracy was made at Münster, in Westphalia (1532–1535). This century was the bloodiest in all history. By 1646 Charles had been forced to surrender himself to the Scots, and the parliamentary forces were in control of England. A timeline chronology showing 17th Century Wars, the main wars of the seventeenth century, including name of war, dates and combatants Rate. Spain was building an empire, and the low Countries paid dearly. Competing claims to the throne and the beginning of civil war. The Wild Beggars pillaged churches and monasteries, cutting off the noses and ears of priests and monks. Like Richard II before him, Henry VI had powerful relatives eager to grasp after power and to place themselves at the head of factions in the state. Another tells of an enraged man who interrupted Christmas Mass, took the host, and trampled it. The fragile compromise came to an end in 1584, when the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, François, Duke of Anjou, died. At the Battle of Jarnac (16 March 1569), the Prince de Condé was killed, forcing Admiral de Coligny to take command of the Protestant forces. There were nine members: seven Dutch and two Spanish. He lost every battle and the Eighty Years' War was underway (1568–1648).. [dubious – discuss]. She therefore supported religious toleration in the shape of the Edict of Saint-Germain (January 1562), which allowed the Huguenots to worship publicly outside of towns and privately inside of them. Mary escaped from Loch Leven the following year, and once again managed to raise a small army. The leadership of the Catholic League had devolved to the Duke de Mayenne, who was appointed Lieutenant-General of the kingdom. Philip became dissatisfied with Margaret, and seized the opportunity to relieve her. Charles soon needed to raise more money to suppress this Irish Rebellion. At the church of St John the Baptist, Knox preached a fiery sermon that provoked an iconoclastic riot. 5. No distinction was made between Catholic or Protestant. And it wasn't just the soldiers who suffered. 7.2 (9) 0. He proceeded to Dundee where a large number of Protestant sympathisers and noblemen had gathered. In the future i will meake the maps of the year 1914, 1918, 1920, 1936, 1939, 1941, 1944, 1945, 1950, for now starting with the frist half of the 20 century Add media RSS Image 4 (view original) embed Napoleon had tried it and failed. Mary set out for Stirling on 26 August 1565 to confront them. The Toggenburg War in 1712 was a conflict between Catholic and Protestant cantons. In 1524, King Christian II converted to Lutheranism and encouraged Lutheran preachers to enter Denmark despite the opposition of the Danish diet of 1524. After obstinate resistance, the town was taken by the besiegers on June 24, 1535, and then Leiden and some of his more prominent followers were executed in the marketplace. That arrangement, which probably did not accord with Henry V’s last wishes, was not maintained without difficulty. The joint Royalist and Confederate forces under the Duke of Ormonde attempted to eliminate the Parliamentary army holding Dublin, but their opponents routed them at the Battle of Rathmines (2 August 1649). Two new forces emerged to oppose Spain.  Although many European leaders were "sickened" by the bloodshed by 1648, smaller religious wars continued to be waged in the post-Westphalian period until the 1710s, including the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651) on the British Isles, the Savoyard–Waldensian wars (1655–1690), and the Toggenburg War (1712) in the Western Alps.. What followed was a series of mutual confiscation of property as England and Spain played international cat-and-mouse. The population of the Czech lands declined by a third. 7. Such brutality set the tone for the rest of the war. Alva hand-picked an army of 10,000 men. Margaret of Anjou reportedly once let her 7-year-old son pick the manner in which two captured Yorkists would be executed; he chose beheading. Protestants entered cathedrals smashing holy objects, breaking up altars and statues and smashing stained glass windows. Lutheranism was immediately established, the Catholic bishops were imprisoned, and monastic and church lands were soon confiscated to pay for the armies that had brought Christian to power. The period of the French Wars of Religion effectively removed France's influence as a major European power, allowing the Catholic forces in the Holy Roman Empire to regroup and recover. The Spanish withdrew from France under the terms of the Peace of Vervins. 1. Mary claimed to favour religious toleration on the French model, however the Protestant establishment feared a reestablishment of Catholicism, and sought with English help to neutralise or depose Mary. One morning, 1,500 were seized in their sleep and sent to jail. Don Fadrique's troops indiscriminately sacked homes, monasteries and churches. This "Spanish Fury" was used by William to reinforce his arguments to ally all the Netherlands' Provinces with him. Henry VI experienced spells of madness and was dominated by his queen, Margaret of Anjou. One of the most emotionally powerful of all World War II documentaries. Whilst the European Union had the resources to sustain itself, the Pan-Asian Coalition did not and eventually found no viable options other than taking resources by force. The English parliament refused to vote enough money for Charles to defeat the Scots without the King giving up much of his authority and reforming the English church along more Calvinist lines. The conflicts culminated in the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), which devastated Germany and killed one-third of its population, a mortality rate twice that of World War I. Wars since 1900. Between 1450 and 1460 Richard, 3rd duke of York, had become the head of a great baronial league, of which the foremost members were his kinsmen, the Nevilles, the Mowbrays, and the Bourchiers. Individual conflicts that may be distinguished within this topic include: The Holy Roman Empire, encompassing present-day Germany and surrounding territory, was the area most devastated by the wars of religion. 6. Christian III established Lutheranism by force in Norway in 1537, Faroe Islands in 1540, and Iceland in 1550. The situation degenerated into the Eighth War (1585–1589). Documentary examining Operation Barbarossa, Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. On August 6, 1566, Philip signed a formal instrument declaring that his offer of pardon had been gotten from him against his will. Bodies were exhumed and corpses were stripped. When Henry recovered in 1455, he reestablished the authority of Margaret’s party, forcing York to take up arms for self-protection. Moreover, WOTC manages to accomplish this in a mere four installments of 45-min episodes. For decades armies and armed bands had roamed Germany like packs of wolves, slaughtering the populace like sheep. The Queen of England sent her apologies as a matter of diplomatic courtesy while unofficially enjoying Spain's troubles. A list of all wars in the 20th and 21st centuries, based on data by COW, Prio and UCDP. They unhesitatingly killed those who clung to the old faith, sometimes after incredible tortures. Both houses claimed the throne through descent from the sons of Edward III. In 1532 the Emperor, pressed by external troubles, stepped back from confrontation, offering the "Peace of Nuremberg", which suspended all action against the Protestant states pending a General Council of the Church. The sudden death of Mary of Guise in Edinburgh Castle on 10 June 1560 paved the way for the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh, and the withdrawal of French and English troops from Scotland, leaving the Scottish Calvinists in control on the ground. The next major armed resistance took place in the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549, which was an unsuccessful rising in western England against the enforced substitution of Cranmer's English language service for the Latin Catholic Mass. King Henry decided to strike first. Ferdinand, having been educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic. In June 1941, Hitler broke the golden rule of warfare never to fight on opposite fronts and marched into the Soviet Union. By 1617 Germany was bitterly divided, and it was clear that Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, would die without an heir. The choice was crucial. In January, 1568, 84 people were executed from Valenciennes alone. On 20 May the Scottish Parliament sentenced him to death and had him hanged the next day. With the help of the Scots, Parliament won at Marston Moor (2 July 1644), gaining York and much of the north of England. Competing claims to the throne and the beginning of civil war, https://www.britannica.com/event/Wars-of-the-Roses, Wars of the Roses - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Wars of the Roses - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The return of Mary, Queen of Scots, to Scotland in 1560, led to further tension between her and the Protestant Lords of the Congregation. Alva's judgment was that of a soldier trained in Spanish discipline and piety. [full citation needed]. The war between Hitler's Germany and Soviet Russia was fought on a scale unprecedented in human history. This the king refused, and deteriorating relations led to the outbreak of war in 1642. The European wars of religion were a series of Christian religious wars which were waged in Europe during the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries. Her secretary, William Maitland of Lethington, defected to the Protestant side, bringing his administrative skills. The siege of Drogheda and massacre of nearly 3,500 people—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including civilians, prisoners, and Catholic priests—became one of the historical memories that has driven Irish-English and Catholic-Protestant strife during the last three centuries. William sent 3,000 men in an effort to relieve Haarlem. Knox negotiated by letter with William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, Elizabeth's chief advisor, for English support. The Imperial power retreated to Austria and the Habsburg lands. In 1567, Mary was captured by another rebellious force at the Battle of Carberry Hill and imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle, where she was forced to abdicate the Scottish throne in favour of her one-year-old son James. War of The Century. In 1625, as part of the Thirty Years' War, Christian IV, who was also the Duke of Holstein, agreed to help the Lutheran rulers of neighbouring Lower Saxony against the forces of the Holy Roman Empire by intervening militarily. The Sonderbund War of 1847 was also based on religion. The young duke of York was proclaimed King Edward IV at Westminster on March 4. Since the Lancastrians had occupied the throne from 1399, the Yorkists might never have pressed a claim but for the near anarchy prevailing in the mid-15th century. An organised influx of Calvinist preachers from Geneva and elsewhere during the 1550s succeeded in setting up hundreds of underground Calvinist congregations in France. It not only examines the war but also the terror inside the Soviet Union at the time due to the paranoia of Joseph Stalin—the revenge atrocities, the Great Purge of army officers, the near-lunatic orders, and the paranoia of being upstaged by others, especially Marshal Zhukov. Then Edward, with the remainder of Warwick’s forces, pursued Margaret north to Towton. League presses began printing anti-royalist tracts under a variety of pseudonyms, while the Sorbonne proclaimed that it was just and necessary to depose Henry III. However, this was generally regarded as unsatisfactory by both Catholics and Protestants. What would drive him to make the most catastrophic mistake of World War II? When additional French troops arrived in Leith, Edinburgh's seaport, the Protestants responded by retaking Edinburgh. Cromwell followed Charles into England, leaving George Monck to finish the campaign in Scotland. The Swedish army alone, which was no greater a ravager than the other armies of the Thirty Years' War, destroyed 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns during its tenure of 17 years in Germany. More than 170 million people were killed by governments with ten million being killed in World War I and fifty million killed in World War II. The Rising of the North, 1569 to 1570, was an unsuccessful attempt by Catholic nobles from Northern England to depose Queen Elizabeth I and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots. Deeply involved in the Thirty Years' War, Spain decided to yield everything to the Dutch in order to be free to fight the French. In response, the Lutheran princes who had set up Protestant churches in their own realms met in the town of Schmalkalden in December 1530. In 1572, rising tensions between local Catholics and Protestant forces attending the wedding of the Protestant Henry of Navarre, and the King's sister, Marguerite de Valois, culminated in the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. He recaptured Deventer, Groningen, Nijmegen and Zutphen. In July 1651, Cromwell's forces crossed the Firth of Forth into Fife and defeated the Scots at the Battle of Inverkeithing (20 July 1651). Bigod's rebellion was an armed rebellion by English Roman Catholics in Cumberland and Westmorland against King Henry VIII of England and the English Parliament. A group called the "Beggars" grew in strength and proceeded to raise a sizable army. The staggering royal debt and Charles IX's desire to seek a peaceful solution[full citation needed] led to the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (8 August 1570), which once more allowed some concessions to the Huguenots. Christian, however, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Imperial generals Albrecht von Wallenstein and Tilly. In 1638 the Scottish National Covenant was signed by aggrieved presbyterian lords and commoners. Alva installed himself as Governor General and appointed a Council of Troubles which the terrified Protestants renamed "The Council of Blood". The victors captured Montrose shortly afterwards and took him to Edinburgh. Henry Tudor (later Henry VII) defeated and killed Richard III at Bosworth Field on August 22, 1485, bringing the Wars of the Roses to a close. Queen Elizabeth of England began to aid the Northern provinces and actually sent troops there in 1585. He legalized polygamy and took sixteen wives, one of whom he personally beheaded in the marketplace.  Huge damage was done to monasteries, churches and other religious institutions. However, both kings firmly repressed attempts to spread Lutheran ideas within France. On 12 May 1588, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris, and Henry III fled the city. Illustration depicting the Battle of Bosworth Field, with King Richard III on the white horse. The Wars of the Roses were fought between the houses of Lancaster and York for the English throne. The Elector of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, and other North German princes not only protected Luther from retaliation from the edict of outlawry issued by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, but also used state power to enforce the establishment of Lutheran worship in their lands, in what is called the Magisterial Reformation. Although most of the wars ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, religious conflicts continued to be fought in Europe until at least the 1710s. The wars listed were the most severe in casualties; the remaining religious conflicts in Europe lasted for only a few years, a year, or less and/or were much less violent. Charles II landed in Scotland at Garmouth in Moray on 23 June 1650 and signed the 1638 National Covenant and the 1643 Solemn League and Covenant immediately after coming ashore.  In an attempt to mine the city, 500 of Farnese's own men were killed when the explosives detonated prematurely. one who was not supportive of Calvinism). Henry VI, oil painting by an unknown artist; in the National Portrait Gallery, London. Peace negotiations were concluded in the Treaty of Lübeck in 1629, which stated that Christian IV could keep his control over Denmark-Norway if he would abandon his support for the Protestant German states. The Guises then proposed a settlement with a cipher as heir and demanded a meeting of the Estates-General, which was to be held in Blois. [full citation needed] After the Duke was killed in action, he was succeeded by the Count of Mansfeld and the Dutch William of Orange and his brothers Louis and Henry. The Treaty of Fleix disaster for the reduction of a series of bungled diplomatic maneuvers Fury '' was by. Great power conflicts battle ensued christian had himself appointed War leader of the France-Habsburg rivalry for pre-eminence in Europe which. Within the Empire led almost inevitably to War. was not restored until 1660 hardly a family Flanders. 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